International evaluation studies reveal that in Europe approximately 20% of children are not equipped with the basic skills in mathematics. For instance, the latest PISA study revealed that 22% of European students were low achievers in mathematics and that the great majority of them can be found in socially disadvantaged areas. This study also reports that 40% of the variation in student performance in mathematics is found between schools within a country which implies that there are significant differences in the performance of students attending different schools. Therefore, school - based interventions targeting students' basic skills in mathematics are needed. In this context, the project "Promoting Quality and Equity: a Dynamic Approach to School Improvement" (Promoting Quality and Equity: a dynamic approach to school improvement - PROMQE) aims to support primary schools in socially disadvantaged areas in using an evidence-based and theory-driven approach to promote students' basic skills in mathematics. Schools in socially disadvantaged areas in four European countries – Cyprus, Greece, England, Ireland – are supported to develop their own strategies and actions by using a dynamic approach to school improvement and adapting it to the specific context and problems they face. Through this project, schools will have the opportunity to implement and evaluate school-based policies and action plans which promote not only quality but also equity in education.